What does ADS B out Mean to Aircraft Operators?

The transition to Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast [ADS-B] from radar surveillance ensures better tracking of flights, both in flight and on the ground. Implementation of ADS-B will not only modernize the ATC surveillance system but will ensure that ATC can support larger volumes of airplanes. There are two types of ADS-B in an aircraft: ADS-B in and ADS-B out. Both are important, but as per the mandate by FAA all the aircrafts must be endowed by Automatic Dependent Surveillance out by January 1, 2020.

What is ADS-B out and why it is important for aircraft operators? 

The broadcast system of ADS-B is known as ‘automatic dependent surveillance out. When an aircraft is equipped with this broadcast system, it can transmit all the important data of an aircraft like altitude, airspeed and position to ADS-B ground stations. In order to have the broadcast system, you will need a transmitter which is approved by ADS-B.  

Among the ADS B out transponders, you can either have 978 MHz UAT [Universal Access Transceiver] or 1090 MHz Mode S enabled transponders. For smooth functioning of transponders, your aircraft must have pre-installed Mode S or Mode C transponder with a WAAS-enabled GPS system.  

There is one limitation in using 978 MHz; you will not be able to receive traffic information transmitted on 1090 MHz. The ground stations will translate the information and re-broadcast the information on two frequencies. When you are within ground station range, you need not bother about the frequencies. If you are out of the coverage area, a high-end transmission system working on 1090 MHz is recommended.  

Advantages of ADS B out Solutions 

ADS B out solutions offer several benefits for ATC surveillance.  

  • With an ADS-B out enabled system, an aircraft can automatically communicate the position of the aircraft to the air traffic controllers through ground stations and a satellite system. Within a specific air space, this allows the traffic controllers real-time, precise view of the location, airspeed and altitude of the aircraft. 
  • In air spaces which are completely devoid of radar surveillance, ATC can use the broadcast system to provide 3- and 5-nmi route separation services. Air traffic control will be more efficient reducing both fuel consumption and congestion.  
  • The transmission of automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out is more accurate than the surveillance conducted by conventional radar. Air traffic controllers are now more equipped to decrease the separation distances between ADS-B enabled aircrafts. 
  • With an ADS broadcast system, one can have a clear picture of all the vehicles and airplanes on the ground. As part of airport surface surveillance, this is particularly helpful for ground control of aircrafts. 
  • With an ADS-B enabled interface, one can view the graphical representation of both air traffic and weather displays via TIS-B and FIS-B. FIS-B or Flight Information System Broadcast works with ADS B and offers airspace and weather restriction information to the aircraft operator. The data will stream from the ground stations to the cockpits. 
  • TIS-B or Traffic Information Service Broadcast can operate with both 978 MHz UAT and 1090 MHz Mode S transponders. Once automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out system is installed in your aircraft, you need not pay an additional cost or any subscription fee for either FIS-B or TIS-b as per FAA’s NextGen system.  
  • If you are looking for a service provider for low-cost ADS B out, it is time to do some research. According to an estimate, aircraft owners may need to spend $ 5,000 to install the ads b out solution in their aircrafts, but the cost may vary.  

How can ADS in and out help air traffic surveillance? 

If automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out handles the broadcasting part, ADS-B in is the receiver system. The ADS-B in system cannot function without a pre-equipped automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out system which has an ADS-B receiver with ‘in’ capacity. With the ‘in’ system, your aircraft will not only receive but interpret data from other ADS-B out equipped aircrafts. The data will be displayed either on an Electronic Flight Bag in the cockpit or on the computer screen. 

The traffic receiver of ADS B in helps in translating local airspace information and offers ‘real-time traffic image’ making the aircraft operator aware of the current situation. Often in remote areas, in absence of ground stations, an aircraft which is equipped with both ADS-B out and ADS-B in will have the information from other ADS-B enabled aircrafts.  

It is a remarkable feat as the aircraft can operate without the help of air traffic services. They can move separately without depending on ground-based infrastructure. As the visibility of aircraft enhances, it not only increases flight safety, but also ensures avoidance of collision. 

Why is the FAA mandate important for aircrafts? 

The US initiative to transform the current surveillance and include the ads b enabled operating system rises from the urge to create an energy-efficient and cost-effective process. Without these changes in air traffic the US economy will incur an additional expense of almost $ 22 billion. This entire initiative of the US government is known as NextGen. This process will create a positive environmental impact by reducing fuel consumption with decreased emission.

In a bid to modernize the prevalent systems in the US national space and decommission the SSRs or Secondary Surveillance Radars, the inclusion of ADS B-effective system is the call of the day. SSR is also not quite effective in remote areas. With an ADS B equipped system, the aircrafts will have a much faster update which allows a faster and better communication system.  

Why can’t you not afford to have the system in your aircraft? 

After the ADS-B mandate becomes effective, aircraft operators without automatic dependent surveillance out system will have to obtain permission/authorization to fly in their designated air space. They need to get the permission at least an hour prior to the flight. If you do not have the authorization, this will be considered as a violation of rule.  

The process of ADS-B out authorization and ADS-B by ATC to fly in the designated airspace are different. Even when you have air clearance from ATC, you will still need an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out system. 

Presently, the adjustment is all about equipping your aircrafts with automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out system. Pilots see great potential in this system as it allows better ‘situational awareness’.  The real-time precise information enables improvements in efficiency and safety.  

An afterword 

An overwhelming question right now is when and what product to buy and upgrade your system. In case the transponder is broken, it is best to replace it with a fully equipped automatic dependent surveillance broadcast out system. It is a better alternative than spending the money on an outdated Mode-C transponder.  

There will be many products in the market loaded with features. You need to shop in time and from the right service provider. It will be wise to install the system by 2020, so that you conform to the existing regulations.  

Why Upgrading FANS 1/A is a Must to Improve Safety of Aircrafts?

FANS or Future Air Navigation System was first introduced to better the communication and surveillance system in Boeing and Airbus aircrafts operating in remote routes. FANS 1/A has revolutionized the communication system which previously used a High Frequency Radio or HF to transmit information between flight crew and ATC.  

Now, pilots can use FANS 1/A as a real-time tool, where a data link is used to initiate satellite communication for transmitting real-time data. A recent mandate by FAA reveals upgrading FAN 1/A is a must for enhancing the safety and efficiency of aircrafts. 

Benefits of a FANS 1/A-equipped Aircraft 

With a FANS 1/A equipped system, aircrafts can exchange data link-enabled communication with ATC through Iridium or Inmarsat satellites. Business jets have been flying with different versions of CPDLC and ADS-C. CPDLC application ensures smooth exchange of communication between ATC and aircrafts serving as a better alternative to voice communications. ADS-C takes care of the surveillance function, with the latest addition being ADS-B Out that displays an accurate broadcast of the aircraft position via an aircraft transponder.  

The introduction of digital data communication reduces the possibility of human errorThe aircrafts can now fly perfectly at an optimum altitude without burning excess fuel. Accurate data leads to optimized flights plans and dynamic re-routing of airlines. Timely procurement of surveillance data ensures that altitude separation is avoided when airplanes cross tracks 

Improved systems like Dynamic Aircraft Routing Planning and User Preferred Routings save expenses on engine and crew maintenance. An aircraft will have a maximum of 2 CPDLC connections each with a distinctive ATSU. Among the two, only 1 will be active at one point of time. 

FANS 1/A requirements 

Some of the equipments required for implementation of FANS are: 

Communication Management Unit (CMU): 

If you have an existing CMU, you can upgrade it. However, it is important to have an equipped Communication Management Unit for smooth functioning of Data Link. 

Flight Management System (FMS): 

A proper FMS with MDCU or Multi-function Display Control Unit is essential. It shows SBAS/WAAS and GPS enabled accurate signals to the pilots. The system normally comes equipped with messaging and SATCOM dialing facilities. 


If the aircraft is already equipped with MCDU or Multi-function Control Display Unit, there will be no alternations the autopilot system. But it should be modified for both notification and display of messages in absence of MCDU. 

Cockpit Voice Recorder: 

A data-enabled Cockpit Voice Recorder along with a CVFDR or a Cockpit and Flight Data Recorder are required to capture the data sent to and fro. This will be crucial for flight’s safety and security as Data Comm will substitute voice communication 

An Inmarsat or Iridium satellite enabled system with WAAS or Wide Area Augmentation System and GPS help in better management of flights.  

Why ADS-B is a must for aircrafts?  

Operators who want to fly their aircrafts without interruption after 2020 must install ADS-B. You will either need a standalone or an integrated transponder for ADS-B requirement. Upgrading to a Mode S transponder can also make the aircraft mandate-compliant but you need to check the required equipment before upgrade.  

Transforming the future of business aviation with FANS 1/A 

If you want to be compliant with both PM-CPDLC and FANS 1/A+, your aircrafts need to update their Communication, Navigation and Surveillance equipments [CNS]. CPDLC handles the communication part of CNSa crucial part for FANS 1/A+ avionics suiteCNS contains a VHF datalink radio or a proper satcom, ADS -C contract, display unit [DCDU] and a datalink control.  

Business aviation will undergo several positive changes with data link communications in CPDLC. Improved air traffic control is just one of them. Eventually, FANS 1/A will transition into CPDLC-only system eliminating the ADS-C. The ADS-B receivers and Iridium NEXT constellation will allow 100% coverage for all aircrafts across the globe.  

FAA allows departure clearance via CPDLC or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications at 57 airports. It is possible for the flight crew to log onto the network just half an hour before the departure time.  

How will FANS 1/A evolve in future? 

Both Airbus and Boeing are ready to meet the second-generation FANS with Fans B [Airbus] and Fans 2 [Boeing]. The improved systems will be part of the new Aeronautical Telecommunications Network protocol. Both Fans B and Fans 2 will include a CMU-based ATN protocol resulting in a reliable and faster data link.  

The mandate of 2020 is targeted at increasing efficiency in air traffic by streamlining traffic in case of congestion. With the upgrade in FAN 1/A+ there will be less delays for aircrafts waiting for clearances on the ground. Better tracking of aircrafts and timely communications also enable improved performance and greater safety.  

But one must remember that every aircraft is unique with a distinct set-up and a unique configuration. There will be some equipments which will already be compliant with the 2020 mandate. Other aircrafts might need a complete overhaul. But each aircraft will definitely benefit from CPDLC installation as enhanced data comm capabilities are going to make business aviation safe. 

After 2020, it will be the age of PBN or performance-based navigation as per CNS operational requirements. The primary goal of Next-Gen is to create a PBN-enabled national airspace. After ADS-B, it will be the age of PBN capability as most aircrafts will be disallowed from flying in certain airspaces without PBN in their flight management system.  

What to Know About FANS 1/A+ and ATN-B2

With air traffic increasing steadily, we need a more efficient air traffic management system. FANS (Future Air Navigation System) has emerged as an innovative technology for handling rising air traffic. The current air traffic management system relies on navigational aids, voice communications, and radar, and would eventually be ineffective in handling the estimated increase in air traffic. Since 1983, Boeing was trying to develop FANS to address the problem. The working of FANS is based on space-based navigation and communication. FANS 1/A+ is an evolved version of FANS and is capable to offer efficient air traffic management. 

FANS 1/A+: Evolved Version of FANS Aviation System 

In 1983, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) began trying to set up a Datalink architecture in its FANS (Future Air Navigation Systemstructure. This advancement became the protocol standard and architecture of oceanic communications network in which early Satcom and HF reigned. Boeing – a user of ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System) – built FANS-1 to ARINC 622 binary data format. This was followed by the development of FANS-A by Airbus. These two systems were combined later and have evolved to FANS-1/A+.  

Boeing (FANS-1) employed the principles of ADS (Automatic Dependent Surveillance) and early CPDLC making use of the existing ACARS. It should be noted that ADS includes automatic surveillance like position reporting, while CPDLC includes communication using text as data and not voice, for authorizations and clearance requests. 


Similar to Airbus (FANS-A) and Boeing (FANS-1), ICAO had been engaged in a separate FANS effort, primarily based on a newer ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) set of standards and protocols. This development was referred to as ATN-B1 (Baseline 1). It’s important to understand this nomenclature as now both the Data Comm paths of ATN-B1 and FANS 1/A+ are combined to form ATN-B2.  

In ATN-B2, the continental focused ATN-B1 and oceanic focused FANS 1/A+ are brought together. ATN-B2 is still being developed by EUROCAE WG 78 and FAA RTCA sub-committee SC 214. ATN-B2 consists of advanced services, like Dynamic RNP, 4D Trajectories, and Advanced Flight Interval Management.  

Benefits of Future Air Navigation System 

DataLink services don’t depend on voice, so there are no concerns related to voice over, data update times, ATC and pilot workload, out of range radar, out of range VHF, HF limitations, and interpretation of words.  

DataLink services of FANS are automated as well as highly flexible to the users on the ground and in the air. FANS aviation system saves time, diminishes operating costs, and improves safety. Furthermore, besides Data Comm, FANS air navigation system helps with other aspects of NextGen, such as surveillance, improved traffic flow, and navigation.  


Wrap Up 

FANS-1/A+ is an innovative air navigation system that can help aircraft navigate efficiently and safely even the more congested airspaces. Boca Aircraft Maintenance, a leading airplane maintenance company in Florida, can provide expert FANS-1/A+ installation services. Get your aircraft equipped with this revolutionary technology to enhance your aircraft’s performance.  

ADS-B Aviation Technology: Things to Know

Countries across the globe are trying to implement a more efficient way to track aircraft. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) has emerged as a useful technology to accomplish this job. ADS-B aviation technology would replace radar eventually as the primary method of surveillance for separation of aircraft and monitoring of Air Traffic Control (ATC).  

Regulations mandating ADS-B technology have been published by the US and some other countries, on aircraft flying in their regions based on differing schedules. Some countries which do not require ADS-B equipment yet have designated special airspace and routes to the aircraft that voluntarily equip.  

The ADS-B Out technology allows ground vehicles and equipped aircraft to broadcast their altitude, position, velocity, and identification to ATC and other aircraft. ADS-B In technology enables aircraft to receive such information.   

ADS-B aircraft technology provides important information that helps prevent and project traffic conflicts.  

Things to Know About ADS-B Aviation System: 

Key Advantages of ADS-B Aviation Technology 

  • Expanding ATC surveillance to more regions 
  • Increasing the efficiency and capacity of airspace 

Working of ADS-B Aviation Technology 

In the US, vehicles and airplanes equipped with ADS-B exchange information on either of two frequencies – 1090 MHz or 978 MHz. Traffic Collision and Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and Mode S and A/C transponders use 1090 MHz. The message elements of Mode S are extended by ADS-B, adding information about an aircraft as well as its position. The extended squitter is referred to as 1090ES. 1090ES was chosen as the global standard for ADS-B by an international technical advisory committee.  

The FAA is upgrading and deploying ground networks systematically. ADS-B Out can be attained in the US through two methods. The first method is using next generation of transponders that operate on the band of 1090 MHz. The second method is making use of a new technology known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). UAT works on 978 MHz and is applicable to aircraft flying below 18,000 feet in the US.  

In the US, as per the ADS-B mandate, all airplanes must have ADS-B Out installed in them by January 1, 2020.  

Equipment Needed for ADS-B Aviation Technology 

Depending on how old your aircraft is, the equipment may be complex or simple. Moreover, some elements might already be on your aircraft. The ADS-B system would need at least one WAAS-capable GPS receiver connected to the transponders directly. The transponders will require upgradation to be compliant.  

ADS-B Out Technology 

The broadcast portion of ADS-B technology is referred to as ADS-B OutADS-B Out equipped airplanes will transmit aircraft information continuously, like location, altitude, and airspeed to the ADS-B ground stations. The minimum necessary equipment for ADS-B Out flight technology is an ADS-B-approved transmitter – a 1090 MHz Mode S transponder or 978 MHz UAT to be used with a Mode S or Mode C transponder installed previously. 

ADS-B In Technology 

The system’s receiver part is referred to as ADS-B In. Aircraft equipped with ADS-B In can receive and interpret the ADS-B Out data of other participating aircraft on an Electronic Flight Bag or a computer screen. The function of ADS-B In needs an approved system of ADS-B Out as well as an ADS-B receiver with “in” ability. Furthermore, for graphic traffic and weather displays, a display interface compatible with ADS-B will be required. 


Wrap Up 

ADS-B aviation technology helps provide airspace users with a more accurate traffic understanding. It’s a highly useful technology helping optimize aircraft performance. If you are an aircraft owner in the United States, get ADS-B flight tracker system installed in your airplane promptly.  

FANS Aviation Navigation: What to Know About Data Comm Systems with FANS 1/A+

Data Comm is a highly complex system development that international and domestic Air Traffic Control organizations and the associated regulatory agencies have undertaken till date. Originally established as a feature for cost-savings, the Data Comm technology has been used in North Atlantic for more than three decades. Canadian and US authorities have established FANS 1/A+ requirement in some North Atlantic airspaces and ATN B1 (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Baseline) ability in European airspace. In the US, the FAA is employing FANS aviation system Domestic functions by the implementation of CPDLC DCL (Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications Departure Clearance) capability to manage airspace, improve safety, and address congestion of communication frequency more effectively.  

Components of Data Comm 

The term Data Comm applies to an expanding set of data communication systems and elements that may be integrated neatly into a single system for transparency of flight crew. In such a case, there may be several CPDLC type systems having remarkably differing ground infrastructure which will largely operate and look the same on flight deck. Some Data Comm elements are almost entirely transparent to flight crew.  

The chief components of Data Comm include: 

  • Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications or CPDLC 
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract or ADS-C (needed for FANS aviation system Oceanic)
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Out or ADS-B Out (for ATN B1/FANS operations) 
  • VDL Mode 2 data link radio and/or an appropriate SATCOM 

Development of FANS 1/A+ and Data Comm 

For aircraft to operate in remote/oceanic regions of airspace, it was essential to establish a method of surveillance and communication for managing aircraft that are out of range of conventional ground-based radar and VHF radio systems for prolonged periods. 

For long years, HF (HIGH Frequency) radio system had been the sole means of communication in oceanic/remote airspace. An HF radio system uses the atmosphere or line of sight for bouncing the transmissions to recipients. There are some problems associated with HF Radio because of noisy transmissions arising from language barriers and atmospheric conditions.  

FANS aviation system led to an improvement in HF radio communication by employing data link communication via satellite communications. The satellite-based existing ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System) was utilized when Data Comm Fans systems were implemented for the first time.  

In 1983, the industry officials were concerned about the increasing air traffic, and tried addressing an ageing infrastructure, not capable of effectively handling increasing congestion. In response to the issue, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) set up the Special Committee for Data Comm FANS. The Special Committee was assigned the task of finding new technologies for development of surveillance and communication in the future which would help manage air traffic under Data Comm FANS infrastructure.  

In 1988, the initial FANS aviation system report was published that laid the foundation for the future strategy of the industry for CNS/ATM concept. Then, work began to develop the technical standards necessary for realizing Data Comm FANS concept.  

The Boeing Company declared the first implementation of FANS aviation system in early 1990s, called FANS-1. The aim of FANS-1 deployment was improving choice of route for operators, and thus, cut down fuel burn.  

A similar technology was later built by Airbus, called ‘FANS A’. The two technologies are today collectively called ‘FANS 1/A’. Minor enhancements have been added to it and is now referred to as FANS 1/A+. Today, Data Comm FANS uses CPDLC and automatic position reporting to communicate with ATC directly over VHF making use of SATCOM or VDL Mode 2 in place of ACARS, so as to facilitate more efficient communication between ATC and aircraft.  

Benefits of Data Comm FANS 1/A+ 

Decreased Separation Between Aircraft 

CDPLC communication between ATC and flight crew reduces communication error possibility drastically and allows diminished separation between aircraft in airspace. Heightened airspace capacity makes more desired routes available for aircraft flying in that airspace. 

Data Link Communication 

The VDL Mode 2 network is a high-capacity and high-speed digital communication network, providing around 20 times the message capacity compared to the commonly used ACARS. Using VDL Mode 2 is also more cost effective compared to traditional VHF.  

Data Comm FANS 1/A+ has a few more benefits other than these. 

FANS Aviation Technology (FANS 1/A+) – A Must-Have for Aircraft 

The future air navigation system (FANS 1/A+) is a highly helpful aircraft navigation system that can help ATCs and pilots identify the most economical and safest flight paths leveraging advanced satellite technology.  ATN B1 update – the latest FANS version – will be a mandate by February, 2020 over European airspace. If you are an aircraft owner, consider getting this latest version of FANS installed in your flying machine promptly.  

4 FAQs Answered About ADS-B Tracking System in Aviation

As something crucial to know for aircraft owners, it has been mandated by the FAA that airplanes flying in airspaces that require a Mode C transponder now must have ADS-B Out installed by January 1, 2020. The ADS-B tracking system is an integral element of NextGen modernization of air traffic.  

The ADS-B Out flight technology transmits information about location, airspeed, and altitude derived via GPS from an equipped airplane to the ground stations as well as to other equipped airplanes in the vicinity. Using this information, air traffic controllers “see” participating airplanes in real time aiming to improve traffic management.  

ADS-B In, although not included in the mandate and needs additional equipment, lets participating airplanes to receive weather and traffic information from the ADS-B ground stations as well as nearby airplanes that broadcast their positions via ADS-B Out. Situational awareness can be improved by displaying this information in the cockpit.  

The ADS-B 2020 mandate has no influence on current transponder requirements, which means airplanes must continue carrying transponders even after getting equipped with ADS-B Out 

Unlike most safety-based rulemaking activities, the ADS-B Out mandate is based on the need to support Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) by the FAA. According to the FAA, the ADS-B Out mandate will not decrease or increase safety significantly but is essential to proceed with NextGen.  

Answers to Some FAQs About ADS-B Tracking System in Aviation 

1. Why is FAA shifting to ADS-B System, moving away from radar? 

ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) is an innovative technology improving efficiency and safety, and benefiting the airlines, airports, controllers, pilots, and the public directly. It is the base for NextGen by shifting from navigational aids and ground radar to precise tracking through satellite signals. 

  • ADS-B flight tracker system allows pilots to see, for the first time, what controllers can see – displays featuring other airplanes in the sky. With cockpit displays, pilots can also get informed about hazardous terrain and weather and receive important flight information like temporary flight restrictions.  
  • With controller and cockpit displays available with ADS-B aviation technology, runway incursion risk is reduced. The controller and cockpit displays provide the location of airplanes as well as equipped ground vehicles at airport surfaces, even during heavy rainfall and nighttime. The newly developed ADS-B applications will help pilots get alerts or indications of potential collisions.  
  • Greater coverage can also be obtained with ADS-B tracking system as it’s far easier to place ground stations than radar. Remote regions that do not have radar coverage, such as parts of Alaska and Gulf of Mexico, have surveillance now with ADS-B.    
  • The use of satellites rather than ground navigational aids lets airplanes fly more directly from one point to another, with reduction in emissions and fuel burn, and savings on money and time.  
  • Satellite signals offer increased reliability, accuracy, and integrity than radar. This would eventually allow controllers to decrease the minimum separation distance safely between airplanes and improve capacity in the skies.  

 2. What are the rules of ADS-B? 

In May 2010, the FAA published the Federal Regulation 14 CFR § 91.227 and 14 CFR § 91.225. According to the final rule, aircraft flying in airspace that’s defined in 91.225 should be equipped with an ADS-B system which consists of a certified position source with the ability to fulfill requirements defined in 91.227.  

 3. ADS-B offers vertical air speed, aircraft number, and altitude. Will it provide horizontal air speed also? 

ADS-B tracking system reports two types of altitudes – geometric and barometric. Geometric altitude is determined by Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) as the aircraft’s height above earth ellipsoid. Pressure or barometric altitude is known best by pilots – it’s the altitude shown on the aircraft’s altimeter. Both the altitudes are different; having both facilitates applications requiring either of them as a source of altitude. 

ADS-B system does not report horizontal or vertical airspeed. Rather, the system reports vertical and horizontal velocity relative to Earth. This velocity helps in air traffic control functions as well as assists ADS-B technology applications.  

 4. When should I equip? 

The mandate requires ADS-B Out installation by January 1, 2020. This ADS-B compliance is required to continue flying in designated airspace. In case you do not need to fly in ADS-B-designated airspaces, then you do not need to equip your aircraft with ADS-B Out 


This information may help you get answers to some of your questions about ADS-B tracking system for aircraft. Following the ADS-B 2020 mandate, get your aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out promptly, as without the system installed, you will not be able to fly in US airspace after January 1, 2020.  

What are the Necessary Inspections for Aircraft Maintenance?

Aircraft inspections are a crucial element of aircraft maintenance to ensure that an aircraft is airworthy, efficient, and safe. The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) also requires airplanes to get routinely inspected for them to be qualified to fly. A well-maintained plane delivers peak performance and suffers fewer breakdowns. Postponing or neglecting plane inspections can pose a risk to passengers. Moreover, a malfunction may lead to serious damage to an aircraft. Inspections help in discovering damaged components and worn parts before an issue arises.

Two chief types of aviation maintenance inspections are required for a Part 91 aircraft – the 100-hour inspections and the annual inspection. You are required to do only one inspection or both is determined by whether your aircraft carries passengers for hire.

Both the inspections include the same elements. The difference lies in who is authorized to carry them out and the inspection frequency.

Additionally, various equipment inspections are required besides the 100-hour and annual inspections.

Let’s have a look at the different inspections required for aircraft maintenance.

Annual Inspection

Most of the general aviation aircraft need an annual inspection. However, some airplanes are excluded that:

Possess a provisional certificate of airworthiness

Possess a current experimental certificate

Possess special flight permit; or

Use an approved plan for progressive inspection

The annual inspection must be completed as well as endorsed properly within the preceding 12 calendar months by a mechanic carrying an inspection authorization (IA). If the annual of an aircraft is endorsed on March 15, 2012, for example, the next annual for the aircraft is due prior to April 1, 2013. The aircraft, otherwise, shall require an authorization (like a ferry permit) for flying.

Ferry permit is needed for flying an aircraft that is out of annual, like when an aircraft flies to another airport to get inspected.

100-Hour Inspection

100-hour inspection is necessary for airplanes that:

Carry any person (apart from crew members) for hire; or

Are provided by an individual offering flight instruction for hire

This rule is applicable only to the individual providing the airplane, not the airplane. Hence, if the airplane is provided by a flight instructor for teaching the student, the 100-hour inspection is required. However, in case the airplane is owned by the student and the flight instructor is hired by the student to only fly with them, it’s not necessary to perform the 100-hour inspection.

The 100-hour limit can be exceeded by 10 hours, only in case the additional time is spent for flying the airplane to the site where a mechanic shall work on it. However, for example, you cannot fly for an additional 8 hours and spend the last 2 hours then for flying to the maintenance base. Moreover, you lose the extra time spent in flying to the next 100-hour inspection. Therefore, if an hour was spent in flying to the maintenance base, 99 hours remain until your next inspection.

Additional Inspections

The additional inspections required for efficient airline maintenance are as follows:


The static system of the aircraft, the automatic altitude-reporting (Mode C) system and the altimeter must have been tested and inspected in preceding 24 calendar months prior to flying IFR within controlled airspace.


The inspection of the transponder must be performed every 24 calendar months. For a transponder to be qualified for being used, its inspection must be carried out every 24 calendar months. Moreover, any modification to the transponder or the installation of one must be inspected and checked for any data errors.

Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)

Inspection of the installed ELT’s must be carried out within 12 calendar months following their last inspection for sufficient signal strength, operation of the crash sensor/controls, battery corrosion, and proper installation. While the ELT check is not strictly required to be completed at the time of annual inspection, it’s a convenient time for performing this inspection.

Summing Up

These are the key aircraft inspections necessary for proper aircraft maintenance. If you own an airplane, ensure that all these inspections are performed on time so that your airplane works efficiently and glitch-free.

Aviation Mandates and Airspace Regulations You Must be Aware About

Several international airspace regulations, frequently changing aviation mandates, and safety protocols make it very challenging for private aircraft owners. Typically, private aircraft owners leave matters of mandates and updates to their trusted pilots and aviation service providers. Professional agents or charter companies provide the international airspace permits.
However, it is very important to know the most fundamental international aviation mandates. The flight path of your aircraft is constantly monitored and must be regulated carefully. This also means you’re your airplane must have the right kind of aviation equipment. At Boca Aircraft Maintenance, LLC, we understand how important information is for safer airspaces. Though these are highly technical matters full of acronyms and industry jargon, we’ll try and simply them for you.

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